Economic inequality has become a focus of prime interest for economic analysts and policy makers. This book provides an integrated approach to the topics of inequality and personal income distribution. It covers the practical and theoretical bases for inequality analysis, applications to real world problems and the foundations of theoretical approaches to income distribution. It also analyses models of the distribution of labour earnings and of income from wealth. The long-run development of income - and wealth - distribution over many generations is also examined. Special attention is given to an assessment of the merits and weaknesses of standard economic models, to illustrating the implications of distributional mechanisms using real data and illustrative examples, and to providing graphical interpretation of formal arguments. Examples are drawn from US, UK and international sources.
International Trade, Distribution and Development brings together a collection of papers that have sought to assess empirically the impacts of policy measures affecting trade. The carefully selected papers analyze the impact of trade barriers and their removal, with a focus on distributional consequences and economic development.Grounded in rigorous empirical analysis, this book covers a range of policy issues such as impacts of trade on wages, non-tariff barriers, trade preferences, export survival and carbon labelling. An invaluable reference for readers seeking to understand the impact of trade policies, the book also seeks to shed light on future research, especially for research on developing countries.
Bukowski, Rajagopalan and their contributors seek to cross both analytical and geographic boundaries in the study of why and how authority shifts both within and beyond the modern nation-state. They develop a conceptualization of the re-distribution of authority, that is, when the capacity of governmental and societal units involved in carrying out the tasks and responsibilities of governance change over time, relative to each other. They argue that this is a more comprehensive alternative to extant conceptualizations used to study the shifting of authority, such as decentralization, regionalism, or federalism. Nine diverse cases are then presented: Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, the United States, Russia, Spain, Portugal, Senegal, and South Africa. Each case addresses the questions: Which are the factors that explain the re-distribution of authority? Under what conditions are some of these factors more important than others?
Despite the diversity of the cases in both geographic location and levels of economic and political development, four major explanatory factors emerge as common across all nine cases: identity-related claims, economic imperatives, considerations of administrative efficiency, and political agency. Moreover, discerning the complex interaction of these factors is necessary in understanding the re-distribution of authority in both its centralizing and decentralizing forms, across all levels of governance. Of particular interest to scholars, students, and policy researchers involved with international relations, comparative politics, public administration, political development, and state formation, and ethnonational politics.
This book compares the five key international arbitral rules: the International Chamber of Commerce, the London Court of International Arbitration, the International Centre for Dispute Resolution, the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce and the ad hoc UNCITRAL Rules. It is the first book of its kind to consider the 2012 ICC Rules alongside the 2014 LCIA Rules.
The book compares these five sets of rules by theme, addressing the role played by institutions; commencing the arbitration, formation and challenge of the Arbitral Tribunal; expedited and emergency procedures; conduct of the arbitration; powers of the tribunal; awards and orders; costs; and conduct and ethics. Each chapter contains a critique and commentary on the approach adopted by each institution, addressing the limitations of each set of rules whilst offering drafting tips and practical guidance for users and practitioners. It is therefore, a vital guide for lawyers and staff involved in international arbitration.
This detailed introduction to distribution theory uses no measure theory, making it suitable for students in statistics and econometrics as well as for researchers who use statistical methods. Good backgrounds in calculus and linear algebra are important and a course in elementary mathematical analysis is useful, but not required. An appendix gives a detailed summary of the mathematical definitions and results that are used in the book. Topics covered range from the basic distribution and density functions, expectation, conditioning, characteristic functions, cumulants, convergence in distribution and the central limit theorem to more advanced concepts such as exchangeability, models with a group structure, asymptotic approximations to integrals, orthogonal polynomials and saddlepoint approximations. The emphasis is on topics useful in understanding statistical methodology; thus, parametric statistical models and the distribution theory associated with the normal distribution are covered comprehensively.