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Religion now plays an increasingly prominent role in the discourse on international security. Within that context, attention largely focuses on the impact exerted by teachings rooted in Christianity and Islam. By comparison, the linkages between Judaism and the resort to armed force are invariably overlooked. This book offers a corrective. Comprising a series of essays written over the past two decades by one of Israel's most distinguished military sociologists, its point of departure is that the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948, quite apart from revolutionizing Jewish political activity, also triggered a transformation in Jewish military perceptions and conduct. Soldiering, which for almost two millennia was almost entirely foreign to Jewish thought and practice, has by virtue of universal conscription (for women as well as men) become a rite of passage to citizenship in the Jewish state. For practicing orthodox Jews in Israel that change generates dilemmas that are intellectual as well as behavioural, and has necessitated both doctrinal and institutional adaptations. At the same time, the responses thus evoked are forcing Israel's decision-makers to reconsider the traditional role of the Israel Defence Force (IDF) as their country's most evocative symbol of national unity.
'For the modern welfare state support' for those who are out of work through no fault of their own remains a foundation stone. Now, however, under pressure form market-driven ideology focused on business performance, its composition and the way support is delivered is in a state of flux. With the avowed objective of minimizing dependence on social benefits and increasing labour market efficiency, many national policies with varying degrees of thoroughness are shifting from a bureaucratic approach to some form of contract arrangement that demands a higher level of personal responsibility from the unemployed worker. The contractualisation process is usually administered through a 'reintegration service' that may be partly or wholly privatised. This remarkable book is the first comparative in-depth study of the process of contractualisation. It offers seventeen penetrating analyses, by leading labour market and labour law authorities, of recent policy initiatives to activate employment by contract and the implications of these initiatives from both legal and a socioeconomic perspective. Among the issue explored are the following: motivation, mobility, and flexibility in the labour market; effect of contractualisation on public accountability and responsibility; effect on the individual's statutory relationship under social security; whether and to what extent the conditions on which one country successfully introduces contractualisation apply to other countries; and, the unemployed individual as 'contract partner': What conditions can he or she set? The analyses focus on experience with contracts as service deliverance in the labour markets of eight countries: Australia, the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Belgium, France, Germany, and Finland. Because a certain measure of experience has already been built up by governments, providers, and clients, now is the time to try and learn form good as well as bad practices in order to build coherent institutional frameworks to help the unemployed. This book is sure to bring insight and effectiveness to the work of professionals, officials, and politicians in this policy field, and will be of special practical value to labour law practitioners, academic researchers and libraries, trade unions, policymakers, and corporate counsel.
financial markets suggests that factors such as differences in capital requirements, limi- tations on size or on the range of financial activities in which firms can engage, govern- ment guarantee arrangements for deposits or payments, and reporting or disclosure requirements can have important effects on the efficiency of industrial and commercial firms and thus on the international competitive positions of major sectors of the U.S. economy. Regulatory and tax policies must therefore take into account effects on inter- national competitive positions in addition to domestic concerns. The articles in this issue analyze differences in market organization and regulation across countries and examine how efficiency in producing financial services is influenced by these differences. These articles were presented and discussed at a conference sponsored by the Amer- ican Enterprise Institute in Washington, D.C., on May 31 and June 1, 1990. This confer- ence on International Competitiveness in Financial Services brought to the attention of Washington policy officials these analyses by leading scholars in finance. Publication of these studies and critiques in the Journal of Financial Services Research is intended to stimulate further interest in research on these important issues.
In clear, easy-to-grasp language, the author covers many of the topics that you will need to know in order to launch and run a successful business venture.